Climate change has become a global emergency. Like the vast majority of current global dynamics, it disproportionately affects the countries and communities of the Global South, including the countries of the southern Mediterranean basin both because of their location and their insufficient preparation. The implications of ongoing climate change were particularly acute throughout 2021 in the Middle East and North Africa (the so-called ‘MENA region’). The fires in the southern Mediterranean were just a one instance. This strong and increasingly evident impact of climate change comes on top of other uncertainties and contexts of tension and vulnerability of the population, whose human security is systematically threatened, and is even becoming a question of pure survival. In a little over 80 years, the landscapes that make up the region will be unrecognisable.